National War Powers Commission
Bipartisan panel led by Secretaries of State Baker and Christopher
Biographies of Commission and of Miller Center Leadership
James A. Baker, III
James A. Baker, III served as the 61st Secretary of State under President George H.W. Bush from 1989 to 1992, and as President Bush's White House Chief of Staff from 1992 to 1993. Mr. Baker, a 1991 recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, served during President Ronald Reagan's administration as Chief of Staff from 1981 to 1985 and as Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988. Mr. Baker is the Honorary Chairman of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University and Senior Partner at the law firm Baker Botts LLP. Mr. Baker and former U.S. Congressman Lee H. Hamilton served as Co-Chairs of the Iraq Study Group in 2006. Mr. Baker and former President Jimmy Carter served as Co-Chairs of the Commission on Federal Election Reform in 2005. From 1997 to 2004, Mr. Baker served as the Personal Envoy of United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan to seek a political solution to the conflict over Western Sahara. In 2003, Mr. Baker was appointed Special Presidential Envoy for President George W. Bush on the issue of Iraqi debt. He earned his bachelor's degree from Princeton University and his law degree from the University of Texas School of Law.
Warren Christopher served as the 63rd Secretary of State under President William J. Clinton from 1993 to 1997. He served as the Deputy Attorney General of the United States from 1967 to 1969, and as the Deputy Secretary of State of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A 1981 recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Mr. Christopher is Senior Partner at the law firm of O'Melveny & Myers LLP, where he was Chairman from 1982 to 1992. Mr. Christopher served as Director of the Presidential Transition process for President Clinton, President of the Board of Trustees of Stanford University, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and Director and Vice Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations. Mr. Christopher is currently Co-Chair of the Board of Directors of the Pacific Council on International Policy. He earned his bachelor's degree from the University of Southern California. After serving as an ensign in the Navy in World War II in the Pacific Theater, he earned his law degree from Stanford Law School, where he was President and a founder of the Stanford Law Review and named to the Order of the Coif. After law school, Mr. Christopher served as law clerk to Justice William O. Douglas of the U.S. Supreme Court.
Slade Gorton represented Washington in the United States Senate from 1981 to 1987 and 1989 to 2001. There he served as a member on the Committees on the Budget, Appropriations, Commerce, Science & Transportation, and Energy & Natural Resources. He was Washington's Attorney General from 1969 to 1981, and served as a state representative from 1958 to 1969. After leaving the Senate, Mr. Gorton joined Preston Gates Ellis LLP, where he is of counsel to the firm now known as K&L Gates. He has served on several commissions, including the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission), the Markle Foundation's Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, and the Miller Center's National Commission on Federal Election Reform. Mr. Gorton is a graduate of Dartmouth College and Columbia University School of Law.
Lee H. Hamilton
Lee H. Hamilton is President and Director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and Director of Indiana University's Center on Congress. During his tenure representing Indiana's Ninth District in Congress from 1965 to 1999, he served as Chairman and Ranking Member of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs (now the Committee on International Relations). He was also Chairman of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, the Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran, the Joint Economic Committee, and the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress. Mr. Hamilton was Vice Chair of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission) and Co-Chair of the Iraq Study Group. He is a graduate of DePauw University and Indiana University Law School, and a member of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.
Carla A. Hills
Carla A. Hills was U.S. Trade Representative under President George H.W. Bush from 1989 to 1993. She was Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and also served in the Ford administration as Assistant Attorney General in the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. She is Co-Chair of the Council on Foreign Relations, Board Chair of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations and Vice Chair of the Inter-American Dialogue. Her other boards and councils include the Executive Committee of the Institute for International Economics, the Trilateral Commission, and the Center for Strategic & International Studies Advisory Board. Mrs. Hills received her bachelor's degree from Stanford University and her law degree from Yale University. She is Chair and Chief Executive Officer of Hills & Company, an international consulting firm.
John O. Marsh, Jr.
John O. Marsh, Jr., was Secretary of the Army under President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989 and represented Virginia's Seventh District in Congress from 1963 to 1971, serving as a member of the Committee on Appropriations. He was named National Security Advisor for Vice President Gerald Ford in 1974, and served as Counselor to the President until 1977. From 1999 to 2004, Mr. Marsh served as a member of the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction. After he retired from public service, Mr. Marsh returned to private practice, while also serving as a Distinguished Adjunct Professor of Law at George Mason University's School of Law and working with the Marsh Institute for Government and Public Policy at Shenandoah University. He holds a law degree from Washington and Lee University.
Edwin Meese, III
Edwin Meese, III was the U.S. Attorney General under President Ronald Reagan from 1985 to 1988 and a Counselor to the President from 1981 to 1985. As Attorney General, he chaired the Domestic Policy Council and the National Drug Policy Board and was a member of the National Security Council. He served previously as Director of the Center for Criminal Justice Policy and Management and a Professor of Law at the University of San Diego, and as the Executive Assistant and Chief of Staff to Ronald Reagan's gubernatorial staff. A graduate of Yale University and the University of California, Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall), Mr. Meese is Chairman of the Center for Legal and Judicial Studies and a Ronald Reagan Distinguished Fellow in Public Policy at the Heritage Foundation, a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution, and served as a member of the Iraq Study Group.
Abner J. Mikva
Abner J. Mikva was White House Counsel under President William J. Clinton from 1994 to 1995. From 1979 to 1994, he served on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, where he presided as Chief Judge for the final three years of his tenure. After serving as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives from 1956 to 1966, Mr. Mikva represented Illinois for five terms in the U.S. Congress, where he was a member of the Committees on Ways and Means and the Judiciary. A graduate of the University of Chicago School of Law and the former editor-in-chief of its Law Review, Mr. Mikva returned to his alma mater as a Schwartz Lecturer and Senior Director of the Mandel Legal Aid Clinic. He is a founding member of the American Constitution Society and presently engages in arbitration and mediation work with JAMS, a national dispute resolution firm.
J. Paul Reason
J. Paul Reason is a Four Star Admiral (retired). He served as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet of the U.S. Navy from 1996 to 1999, and commanded an armada of more than 185 ships and submarines, 1,356 aircraft, 18 shore bases, and 121,350 Navy and Marine Corps personnel. ADM Reason became Deputy Chief of Naval Operations in 1994 after nearly thirty years in the U.S. Navy serving in a variety of posts including Commander of the Naval Surface Force of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet from 1991 to 1994, and Commander of Cruiser-Destroyer Group One from 1988-1991. ADM Reason earned his bachelor's degree from the United States Naval Academy and a master's degree from the Naval Postgraduate School. He retired as Vice Chairman of Metro Machine Corporation in 2006 and presently serves as a member of the Naval Studies Board and the Boards of Directors of Amgen, Inc., Norfolk Southern, and Todd Shipyards Corp.
Brent Scowcroft was National Security Advisor under President Gerald R. Ford from 1975 to 1977 and under President George H. W. Bush from 1989 to 1993. He previously served as a Lieutenant General in the United States Air Force. Mr. Scowcroft also served as Military Assistant to President Richard Nixon and as Deputy National Security Advisor. He was Chairman of the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005. He is the founder and President of the Forum for International Policy, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and President of the Scowcroft Group, Inc., an international business consulting firm. Mr. Scowcroft earned his undergraduate degree from the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he also served as Professor of Russian History, and received his master's and doctorate degrees from Columbia University.
Anne-Marie Slaughter is the Dean of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and the Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University. She joined Princeton in 2002 from the faculty of Harvard Law School, where she was the J. Sinclair Armstrong Professor of International, Foreign, and Comparative Law. She is the former President of the American Society of International Law and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Ms. Slaughter serves on the boards of the Council on Foreign Relations, the New America Foundation, and the Center for the Study of the Presidency, and is a member of Citigroup's Economic and Political Strategies Advisory Group. She received her master's and doctorate degrees from Oxford University, a law degree from Harvard Law School, and a bachelor's degree from Princeton University.
Strobe Talbott is President of the Brookings Institution. He served in the State Department under President William J. Clinton from 1993 to 2001, first as Ambassador-at-large and special adviser to the Secretary of State for the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, then as Deputy Secretary of State. Prior to joining Brookings, he was the founding director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Before entering government service, Mr. Talbott spent 21 years as a reporter, Washington bureau chief, foreign affairs columnist, and editor-at-large of Time magazine. He holds an M.Litt. degree from Oxford University and bachelor's and master's degrees from Yale University. He has served as a Fellow of the Yale Corporation, a Director of the Council on Foreign Relations, on the North American Executive Committee of the Trilateral Commission, and as a Trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Ex Officio Commission Members
John T. Casteen, III
John T. Casteen, III, is President of the University of Virginia and George M. Kaufman Presidential Professor of English. Prior to joining the University in 1990, he served as President of the University of Connecticut from 1985 to 1990 and as Virginia's Secretary of Education from 1982 to 1985. Mr. Casteen has served as Chair of the Association of American Universities, as Chair of the College Entrance Examination Board, and as President of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. He also has been a director of the American Council on Education, a member of the Board of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and a commissioner of the Education Commission of the States. He serves on the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of Wachovia Corporation. Mr. Casteen holds his bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in English from the University of Virginia.
David W. Leebron
David W. Leebron is President of Rice University and a Professor of Political Science. He joined Rice from Columbia Law School, where he served as Dean and Lucy G. Moses Professor of Law. Prior to joining Columbia, he was Director of the International Legal Studies Program of the New York University School of Law, where he was a member of the faculty. He has served as a member of the Commission for Federal Election Reform, the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Society of International Law, the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, the Board of Directors of the IMAX Corporation, and the Editorial Board of Foundation Press. Mr. Leebron earned his bachelor's degree from Harvard College and his law degree from Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Law Review.
John C. Jeffries, Jr.
John C. Jeffries, Jr., is the Emerson Spies Professor of Law at the University of Virginia School of Law and served as Dean of the Law School from 2001 to 2008. He joined the Virginia law faculty in 1975 and subsequently served as Academic Associate Dean and acting dean before becoming Dean in 2001. He was the John V. Ray Research Professor from 1989 to 1991, the Horace W. Goldsmith Research Professor from 1992 to 1995, and the William L. Matheson and Robert M. Morgenthau Distinguished Professor from 1996 to 2001. The author of numerous publications on civil rights, constitutional law, federal courts, and criminal law, Mr. Jeffries has been a Visiting Professor of Law at the University of Southern California and at Yale and Stanford Universities. He earned his law degree from Virginia and his bachelor's degree from Yale. After graduation, Mr. Jeffries clerked for Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1973 to 1974.
W. Taylor Reveley, III
W. Taylor Reveley, III, is Interim President of the College of William & Mary and holds the John Stewart Bryan Professorship of Jurisprudence. He served as Dean of William & Mary School of Law from 1998 to 2008. Before joining the faculty in 1998, he practiced law at Hunton & Williams LLP for 28 years, serving as Managing Partner for nine years and head of its Energy and Telecommunications team. Mr. Reveley clerked for Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1969 to 1970 and studied the war powers as a Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and an International Affairs Fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is a trustee emeritus of Princeton University and a current trustee of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Mr. Reveley earned his bachelor's degree from Princeton University and his law degree from the University of Virginia School of Law.
Historical Advisor to the Commission
Doris Kearns Goodwin
Doris Kearns Goodwin is a presidential historian and Pulitzer Prize-winning author of No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II. She also is author of the national bestsellers Wait Till Next Year, The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys, and Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream. From 1968 to 1969, Ms. Goodwin worked as an assistant to President Lyndon Johnson and later assisted him on the preparation of his memoirs while also serving as a Professor of Government at Harvard University. Ms. Goodwin recently published Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, which received the Lincoln Prize and was a New York Times bestseller. Ms. Goodwin currently serves as a News Analyst for NBC News. She received her bachelor's degree from Colby College and a Ph.D in Government at Harvard University, where she was a Woodrow Wilson Fellow.
Andrew J. Dubill
Andrew J. Dubill serves as the Staff Director for the Miller Center's National War Powers Commission. He joined the Miller Center from Kirkpatrick & Lockhart Nicholson Graham LLP (now known as K&L Gates) in Washington, D.C., where he focused on securities enforcement defense, white collar criminal defense, and securities litigation. While in private practice, he represented broker-dealers, investment advisors, and individuals before the U.S. Department of Justice, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and other regulatory agencies and organizations. He clerked for U.S. District Judge Norman K. Moon of the Western District of Virginia and the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of Virginia. Mr. Dubill is a graduate of Princeton University and the University of Virginia's School of Law, where he was a Hardy Cross Dillard Fellow in Legal Research and Writing.
Juliana E. Bush
Juliana E. Bush is the Policy and Planning Analyst for the National War Powers Commission. She received her bachelor's degree from the University of Virginia. Ms. Bush has worked as an Account Manager for CSI Capital Management, San Francisco financial management company that provides investment advice for a wide variety of high-net worth individuals. Her clients included professional athletes from the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, and Major League Baseball. After CSI, Ms. Bush returned to Charlottesville, where she assisted the Miller Center's Acting Director of Communications and the Associate Director of Admissions at the Darden Graduate School of Business. She also was a reporter in the Financial Services Group of SNL Financial, a global business research company which provides marketplace information to Wall Street, top law firms, and the media.
Secretaries Baker and Christopher
John B. Williams
John B. Williams is the Policy Assistant to James A. Baker, III, Co-Chair of the National War Powers Commission. Mr. Williams works in the Houston office of the law firm Baker Botts, L.L.P., where he has contributed to the work of a number of high-profile commissions and has assisted in the preparation of their reports. Mr. Williams served as Special Assistant to the Iraq Study Group. Most recently, he contributed to the Report of the BP U.S. Refineries Independent Safety Review Panel, which was commissioned in the aftermath of a catastrophic process accident at the BP plant in Texas City, Texas. Mr. Williams joined Baker Botts after a long career at The Houston Chronicle, where he was a political columnist and reporter covering state and local issues.
Matthew T. Kline
Matthew T. Kline is serving as Counsel to Warren Christopher, Co-Chair of the National War Powers Commission. Mr. Kline is a Partner at O'Melveny & Myers, LLP, where he works as a litigator in the law firm's Century City office. Mr. Kline speaks and teaches regularly at law schools. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and is a graduate of University of California, Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall), where he was named to the Order of the Coif and served as Editor in Chief of the California Law Review. After law school, Mr. Kline served as law clerk for the Honorable Edward R. Becker, then-Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.
Miller Center Leadership
Gerald L. Baliles
Gerald L. Baliles is the Director of the Miller Center and served as Governor of Virginia from 1986 to 1990. Prior to his election as governor, he was the Attorney General of Virginia from 1982 to 1985 and a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1976 to 1982. After leaving public office, he entered private law practice as a partner in the firm of Hunton & Williams LLP, where his practice specialties included aviation, trade, and transportation. Formerly the Chairman of the Board of PBS, Governor Baliles also chaired the Commission to Ensure a Strong Competitive Airline Industry for the President and Congress, the Commission on the Academic Presidency, and the Task Force on the State of the Presidency in Higher Education. He is a member of the Boards of Directors of the Norfolk Southern Corporation and the Shenandoah Life Insurance Company, and is a graduate of Wesleyan University and the University of Virginia School of Law. In addition, he holds eleven honorary degrees.
W. Taylor Reveley, IV
W. Taylor Reveley, IV, serves as Assistant Director for Policy Programs and Planning at the Miller Center. He oversees its Policy Programs, including the National War Powers Commission, and has responsibility for the Center's strategic planning and coordinated operations. Before joining the Miller Center, Mr. Reveley was an attorney with Hunton & Williams LLP. His national corporate practice focused on mergers and acquisitions, corporate governance, nonprofit organizations, and higher education, and he advised clients on disclosure regulations under the federal securities laws. A member of the bar of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Mr. Reveley earned his bachelor's degree from Princeton University, a master's in divinity from Union Theological Seminary, and his law degree from the University of Virginia School of Law.