Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882 – 1945) [cite this] More images » Life in Brief: Faced with the Great Depression and World War II, Franklin D. Roosevelt, nicknamed “FDR,” guided America through its greatest domestic crisis, with the exception of the Civil War, and its greatest foreign crisis. His presidency—which spanned tw… more life in brief » Essays about Franklin D. Roosevelt Life in Brief Life in Brief: Faced with the Great Depression and World War II, Franklin D. Roosevelt, nicknamed “FDR,” guided America through its greatest domestic crisis, with the exception of the Civil War, and its greatest foreign crisis. His presidency—which spanned twelve years—was unparalleled, not only in length … Life Before the Presidency Life Before the Presidency: Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born to James and Sara Roosevelt in 1882. James was a land-owner and businessmen of considerable, but not awesome, wealth from New York. He likely joined the Democratic Party in the 1850s and identified with the party for the remainder of his life, although he voted… Campaigns and Elections Campaigns and Elections: The Campaign and Election of 1932: Political observers in the early 1930s were of decidedly mixed opinion about the possible presidential candidacy of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Many leaders of the Democratic Party saw in Roosevelt an attractive mixture of experience (as governor of New York and as a f…Domestic Affairs Domestic Affairs: FDR's mandate as a first-term President was clear and challenging: rescue the United States from the throes of its worst depression in history. Economic conditions had deteriorated in the four months between FDR's election and his inauguration. Unemployment grew to over twenty-five p…Foreign Affairs Foreign Affairs: Through his first six years in office, Franklin Roosevelt spent much of his time trying to bring the United States out of the Great Depression. The President, however, certainly did not ignore America's foreign policy as he crafted the New Deal. Roosevelt, at heart, believed the United States ha…Death of a President Death of the President: Roosevelt’s health was in decline as FDR prepared in 1944 for both a fourth run at the presidency and the aftermath of World War II. A March 1944 examination by his doctors revealed a variety of heart ailments, high blood pressure, and bronchitis. Those close to the President—and…Family Life Family Life: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt had five sons and a daughter, although one son died in infancy. FDR was not deeply involved in raising his children, in part because he was so occupied with his work. But he also believed that childrearing was his wife's (or the family nanny's) task. When FDR e…The American Franchise The American Franchise: President Franklin D. Roosevelt's smashing victory in the 1936 presidential election revealed that the American political landscape had shifted. With FDR at its head, the Democratic Party put together a formidable coalition whose main components were lower-income groups in the great cities&a…Impact and Legacy Impact and Legacy: Franklin Delano Roosevelt served as President from March 1933 to April 1945, the longest tenure in American history. He may have done more during those twelve years to change American society and politics than any of his predecessors in the White House, save Abraham Lincoln. Of course, some of this … About His Administration First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Vice President Harry Truman (1945) Henry A. Wallace (1941–1945) John N. Garner (1933–1941) Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1944–1945) Cordell Hull (1933–1944) Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes (1933–1945) Attorney General Francis B. Biddle (1941–1945) Robert H. Jackson (1940–1941) Frank Murphy (1939–1940) Homer S. Cummings (1933–1939) Postmaster General Frank C. Walker (1940–1945) James A. Farley (1933–1940) Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr. (1934–1945) William H. Woodin (1933) Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins (1933–1945) Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace (1945) Jesse H. Jones (1940–1945) Harry L. Hopkins (1938–1940) Daniel C. Roper (1933–1938) Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard (1940–1945) Henry A. Wallace (1933–1940) Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal (1944–1945) Frank Knox (1940–1944) Charles Edison (1940) Claude A. Swanson (1933–1939) Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson (1940–1945) Harry H. Woodring (1936–1940) George H. Dern (1933–1936) Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Recordings view all recordings » Facts about Franklin D. Roosevelt Term: 32nd President of the United States (1933 – 1945) Born: January 30, 1882, Hyde Park, New York Political Party: Democrat Died: April 12, 1945 Nickname: “FDR” Education: Harvard College (graduated 1903), Columbia Law School Religion: Episcopalian Marriage: March 17, 1905, to Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962) Children: Anna Eleanor (1906–1975), James (1907–1991), Franklin Delano Jr. (1909), Elliott (1910–1990), Franklin Delano Jr. (1914–1988), John Aspinwall (1916–1981) Career: Public Official, Lawyer Buried: Hyde Park, New York WritingsThe Happy Warrior, Alfred E. Smith (1928), F.D.R.: His Personal Letters (4 vols., 1947-50), ed. by Elliott Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt Image Gallery More images » Franklin D. Roosevelt Exhibits ‘The G.I. Bill’ On July 28, 1943, in his Fireside Chat 25, President Franklin D. Roosevelt laid out what he believed returning servicemen were entitled to when they came home from World War II. His conditions became the basis for the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act, known informally as the G.I. Bill, which Congress passed in 1944. The G.I. Bill has been amended and expanded and is still in existence today. ‘The Contingencies of War’ President Roosevelt sketches out for reporters various potential developments in the European war as well as possible U.S. responses. ‘A Japanese Ultimatum’ The focus of this telephone conversation between President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull, however, is the growing conflict with Japan in the Far East and the Pacific Ocean. ‘“Some Fool Thing”’ Reflecting upon a recent bellicose statement by the head of the Japanese Press Association, FDR speculated with aides about the degree to which those remarks reflected official Japanese policy. more exhibits » I call for effort, courage, sacrifice, devotion. Granting the love of freedom, all of these are possible. And the love of freedom is still fierce and steady in the nation today. June 10, 1940 Citation Information Consulting Editor William E. Leuchtenburg Professor Leuchtenburg is the William Rand Kenan Jr. Professor Emeritus of History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His writings include: The White House Looks South: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, Lyndon B. Johnson (Louisiana State University Press, 2005) The FDR Years: On Roosevelt and His Legacy (Columbia University Press, 1995) The Perils of Prosperity, 1914-32 (University of Chicago Press, 1993) Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (Harper Collins, 1963) Harry S. Truman » « Herbert Hoover American President has changed! Click here to take a short survey and tell us what you think!