Miller Center

Theodore Roosevelt Bibliography (1858 - 1919)

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Historical Context

Milkis, Sidney M. and Jerome M. Mileur, eds. Progressivism and the New Democracy.

Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999.

Collection of essays on the Progressive period.

Chambers, John Whiteclay. The Tyranny of Change: America in the Progressive Era, (1890-1920). 2d ed. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2000.

Hofstadter, Richard. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to FDR. New York: Knopf, 1955.

"Classic" history of the Progressive period; awarded the Pulitzer Prize for History in 1956.

Gould, Lewis L. Reform and Regulation: American Politics from Roosevelt to Wilson. 3d ed. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, 1996.

Mowry, George E. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt, 1900-1912. New York: Harper, 1958.

Kennan, George Frost. American Diplomacy, 1900-1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Includes eight lectures Kennan gave at the University of Chicago in 1950. Covers American diplomacy from the Spanish-American War through the Second World War.

Rodgers, Daniel T. Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Comparative history of the United States and Europe and how their relationship developed during and after the Progressive Era.

Roosevelt Primary Sources

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Works of Theodore Roosevelt. Memorial ed. 24 vols. Edited by Hermann Hagedorn. New York: Scribner’s, 1926.

Contains all of his published works, collected essays, and selected messages and speeches.

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Works of Theodore Roosevelt. National ed. 20 vols. Edited by Hermann Hagedorn. New York: Scribner’s, 1926.

A slightly shorter but more readily available version of the Memorial edition above.

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt. 8 vols. Edited by Elting Morison. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1951-1954.

The most complete published collection of Roosevelt’s letters.

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Selected Letters of Theodore Roosevelt. Edited by H.W. Brands. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2001.

A good one-volume collection of Roosevelt's letters.

Richardson, James D., ed. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. 20 vols. Washington: Bureau of National Literature and Art, 1917.

Contains complete texts of inauguration addresses, proclamations, executive orders and other state papers.

Roosevelt, Theodore. Addresses and Presidential Messages of Theodore Roosevelt, 1902-1904. New York: Putnam’s, 1904.

Perhaps more readily available than Richardson above; limited to addresses and messages from Roosevelt’s first term.

Roosevelt Biographies

Morris, Edmund. The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1979.

Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Random House, 2001.

First two volumes of a projected three volume "life" of Roosevelt. The first volume was awarded the Pulitzer Prize and American Book Award in 1980.

Brands, H.W. T. R. The Last Romantic. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

A recent and accessible one-volume life of Roosevelt.

Harbaugh, William Henry. Power and Responsibility: The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. Rev. ed. New York: Octagon Books, 1975.

Originally published in 1961, considered one of the better single volume biographies of Roosevelt. Revised edition contains an updated bibliography.

Blum, John Morton. The Republican Roosevelt. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954.

Pringle, Henry F. Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1931.

"Classic" Pulitzer Prize winning biography.

Auchincloss, Louis. Theodore Roosevelt. Edited by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001.

Part of the American Presidents Series; a series of condensed, concise volumes for a range of audiences. Typically 150 pages or less.


Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1991.

From the American Presidency Series, a series dedicated to providing a consistent, scholarly treatment of each president. Coverage is limited to the years in office.


McCullough, David G. Mornings on Horseback. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981.

Putnam, Carleton. Theodore Roosevelt: The Formative Years, 1858-1866. New York: Scribner’s, 1958.

Both McCullough and Putman cover Roosevelt’s early years.

Chessman, G. Wallace. Governor Theodore Roosevelt: The Albany Apprenticeship. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Berman, Jay Stuart. Police Administration and Progressive Reform: Theodore Roosevelt as Police Commissioner of New York. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1987.

Discusses Roosevelt’s six years as a civil service commissioner and his influence on the city’s policemen.

Contemporary Accounts

Bishop, Joseph Bucklin. Theodore Roosevelt and His Time. 2 vols. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1920.

Official biography by Roosevelt’s hand-picked biographer.

Halstead, Murat. The Life of Theodore Roosevelt. Akron, OH: Saalfield, 1902.

A campaign biography, thus favorable toward Roosevelt.

Roosevelt, Theodore. An Autobiography. New York: Scribner’s, 1913.

The Autobiography is included in the Memorial and National editions of Roosevelt’s Works (see above under "Roosevelt Primary Sources"). See full text of An Autobiography online.

Roosevelt Administration

Charles W. Fairbanks (Vice President)

Smith, William Henry. The Life and Speeches of Hon. Charles Warren Fairbanks, Republican Candidate for Vice-President. Indianapolis: Burford, 1904.

John M. Hay (Secretary of State)

Dennett, Tyler. John Hay: From Poetry to Politics. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1933.

Older, but still one of the better accounts of Roosevelt’s Secretary of State.

Clymer, Kenton J. John Hay: The Gentleman as Diplomat. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1975.

Kushner, Howard I. and Anne Hummel Sherrill. John Milton Hay: The Union of Poetry and Politics. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1977.

Explains to the historian and the general reader how Hay rose to direct the foreign policy of the U.S.; more of an essay than a biography.

Hay, John. John Hay-Howells Letters : The Correspondence of John Milton Hay and William Dean Howells. Edited by George Monteiro and Brenda Murphy. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1980.

Correspondence between Hay and his friend Howells (leading man of letters at the turn of the century). Correspondence tends to be more personal than political in nature.

Elihu Root (Secretary of State, Secretary of War)

Root, Elihu. The Military and Colonial Policy of the United States. Collected and edited by Robert Bacon and James Brown Scott. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1916.

Root, Elihu. Addresses on Government and Citizenship. Collected and edited by Robert Bacon and James Brown Scott. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1916.

Root, Elihu. Addresses on International Subjects. Collected and edited by Robert Bacon and James Brown Scott. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1916.

The above three volumes are part of a multi-volume set of Root’s addresses and essays.

Jessup, Philip Caryl. Elihu Root. 2 vols. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1938.

Leopold, Richard W. Elihu Root and the Conservative Tradition. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1954.

Robert Bacon (Secretary of State)

Scott, James Brown. Robert Bacon: Life and Letters. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1923.

Leslie M. Shaw (Secretary of the Treasury)

Andrew, A.P., "The Treasury and the Banks Under Secretary Shaw," Quarterly Journal of Economics, Aug. 1907.

George B. Cortelyou (Secretary of the Treasury, Postmaster General)

Ford, Benjamin Temple. "A Duty to Serve: The Governmental Career of George Bruce Cortelyou." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1963.

William H. Taft (Secretary of War)

Taft, William H. The Collected Works of William H. Taft. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2001.

Pringle, Henry F. The Life and Times of William Howard Taft. 2 vols. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1939.

Contains a thorough examination of Taft’s cabinet career.

Coletta, Paolo E. The Presidency of William Howard Taft. Lawrence: The University Press of Kansas, 1973.

From the American Presidency Series, a series dedicated to providing a consistent, scholarly treatment of each president. Coverage is limited to the years in office.

See online bibliography of William H. Taft for more information.

Philander C. Knox (Attorney General)

Eitler, A.T. Philander Chase Knox: First Attorney General of Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1904. Washington: Catholic University Press, 1959.

William H. Moody (Attorney General, Secretary of the Navy, Supreme Court Associate Justice appointed by Roosevelt)

McDonough, Judith Rene. "William Henry Moody." Ph.D. diss., Auburn University, 1983.

Charles J. Bonaparte (Attorney General, Secretary of the Navy)

Bishop, Joseph Bucklin. Charles Joseph Bonaparte, His Life and Public Services. New York: Scribner’s, 1922.

Rumble, Allen Walker. "Rectitude and Reform: Charles J. Bonaparte and the Politics of Gentility, 1851-1921." Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland, 1970.

John D. Long (Secretary of the Navy)

Long, John Davis. America of Yesterday, as Reflected in the Journal of John Davis Long. Edited by Lawrence Shaw Mayo. Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1923.

Long, John Davis. The New American Navy. New York: Outlook Co., 1903.

Long, John Davis. After Dinner and Other Speeches. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1895.

Speeches on a wide range of subjects all given before becoming Secretary of the Navy.

George von Lengerke Meyer (Postmaster General)

Wiegand, Wayne A. Patrician in the Progressive Era: Biography of George von Lengerke Meyer. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988.

Howe, M.A. DeWolfe. George von Lengerke Meyer: His Life and Public Services. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1920.

Fowler, Dorothy Ganfield. The Cabinet Politician: The Postmasters General, 1829-1909. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

For general information on the Postmaster General position and the individual Postmaster Generals from 1829-1909.

James R. Garfield (Secretary of the Interior)

Thompson, Jack M. "James R. Garfield: The Career of a Rooseveltian Progressive, 1895-1916." Ph.D. diss., University of South Carolina, 1958.

Oscar S. Straus (Secretary of Commerce and Labor)

Straus, Oscar Solomon. Under Four Administrations: From Cleveland to Taft. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1922.

Straus, Oscar Solomon. The American Spirit. New York: The Century Company, 1913.

A collection of speeches and essays.

Cohen, Naomi Wiener. A Dual Heritage: The Public Career of Oscar S. Straus. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1969.

Oliver Wendell Holmes (Supreme Court Justice appointed by Roosevelt)

White, G. Edward. Oliver Wendell Holmes: Sage of the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Biography with an emphasis on his thirty years he served as a Supreme Court Associate Justice.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Holmes and Frankfurter: Their Correspondence, 1912-1934. Hanover, NH: Published by University Press of New England for University of New Hampshire, 1996.

Correspondence between two Supreme Court Justices.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Holmes-Pollock Letters: The Correspondence of Mr. Justice Holmes and Sir Frederick Pollock, 1874-1932. Edited by Mark de Wolfe Howe. Special ed. New York, N.Y.: Legal Classics Library, 1996.

Pollock was an English legal scholar from Oxford.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Holmes-Sheehan Correspondence: Letters of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and Canon Patrick Augustin Sheehan. Edited by David H. Burton. Rev. Ed. Bronx, N.Y.: Fordham University Press, 1993.

Sheehan was an Irish author of law books.

William Rufus Day (Supreme Court Justice appointed by Roosevelt)

McLean, Joseph Erigina. William Rufus Day: Supreme Court Justice from Ohio. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1946.

Major Issues in the Roosevelt Administration

Progressive Movement

For general works on the Progressive Movement, see "Historical Context" above. Specific issues are covered below.

Labor Issues

Montgomery, David. The Fall of the House of Labor: The Workplace, the State, and American Labor Activism, 1865-1925. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Cornell, Robert J. The Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902. 1957. Reprint, New York: Russell & Russell, 1971.

The coal strike was an early and far-reaching instance of Roosevelt intervening in a labor dispute.

"The Report to the President on the Anthracite Coal Strike of May-October 1902 by the Anthracite Coal Commission." Washington D.C.: Government Publishing Office, 1903.

Lloyd, Henry Demarest. Men: the Workers. New York: Arno, 1969.

A collection of the labor activist’s speeches including an argument before the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission.

Economy (Trust-busting, Banking, Tariffs)

Meyer, Balthasar Henry. A History of the Northern Securities Case. New York: Da Capo Press, 1972.

A history of Roosevelt’s first significant attempt to break a monopoly: The Northern Securities Company (the merger of three large railroad companies).

Kolko, Gabriel. Railroads and Regulation, 1877-1916. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965.

Argues that the railroads endorsed national regulation.

Martin, Albro. Enterprise Denied: Origins of the Decline of American Railroads, 1897-1917. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971.

A counterpoint to Kolko, Martin argues that railroad companies suffered because of regulation.

Thorelli, Hans B. The Federal Antitrust Policy: Origination of an American Tradition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1954.

Letwin, William. Law and Economic Policy in America: The Evolution of the Sherman Antitrust Act. New York: Random House, 1965.

Sklar, Martin J. The Corporate Reconstruction of American Capitalism, 1890-1916: The Market, the Law, and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Focuses on the struggle to reform the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

McCulley, Richard Todd. "The Origins of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913: Banks and Politics During the Progressive Era, 1897-1913." Ph.D. diss., University of Texas at Austin, 1980.

Livingston, James. Origins of the Federal Reserve System: Money, Class and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Baker, Richard Cleveland. The Tariff Under Roosevelt and Taft. Hastings, Nebr.: Democrat Printing Co., 1941.

Meat Packing and Food and Drug Acts

Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1906.

After reading this Roosevelt ordered an investigation of the conditions of the meat-packing industry. The result of this investigation was the Meat Inspection Act and the Food and Drug Act.

Anderson, Oscar E., Jr. The Health of a Nation: Harvey W. Wiley and the Fight for Pure Food. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Wiley served as chief chemist of the United States Department of Agriculture during the Roosevelt administration and actively campaigned against food adulteration.

Young, James Harvey. Pure Food: Securing the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Goodwin, Lorine Swainston. The Pure Food, Drink, and Drug Crusaders, 1879-1914. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1999.

Race Relations

Dyer, Thomas G. Theodore Roosevelt and the Idea of Race. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980.

An overview of Roosevelt and the issue of race.

Weaver, John D. The Brownsville Raid. New York: Norton, 1970.

Weaver, John D. The Senator and the Sharecropper’s Son: Exoneration of the Brownsville Soldiers. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1997.

Lane, Ann J. The Brownsville Affair: National Crisis and Black Reaction. Port Washington, N. Y.: Kennikat Press, 1971.


Hay, Samuel P. Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.

Penick, James L. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

McCarthy, G. Michael. Hour of Trial: The Conservation Conflict in Colorado and the West, 1890-1907. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977.

Pinchot, Gifford. The Conservation Diaries of Gifford Pinchot. Durham, N.C.: The Forest History Society, 2001.

Fox, Stephen R. John Muir and His Legacy: The American Conservation Movement. Boston: Little, Brown, 1981.


Muir was an influential adviser to Roosevelt on the issue of Forest Preservation.


Foreign Affairs (Primary Sources)

United States Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1861-.

The Foreign Relations of the Unites States series has provided the documentary record of U.S. foreign policy and diplomatic activity since the State Department began publication in 1861. The Roosevelt Presidency is covered in fourteen volumes.

U.S. Military

Challener, Richard D. Admirals, Generals, and American Foreign Policy, 1898-1914. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973.

O’Gara, Gordon Carpenter. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of the Modern Navy. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969.

A good starting point to the topic of how Roosevelt vastly improved the Navy during his time in power.

See "John D. Long" under "Roosevelt Administration" above for more information.

Foreign Relations with Latin America

Collin, Richard H. Theodore Roosevelt’s Caribbean: The Panama Canal, the Monroe Doctrine, and the Latin American Context. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

Herwig, Holger H. Germany’s Vision of Empire in Venezuela, 1871-1914. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Jonas, Manfred. The United States and Germany: A Diplomatic History. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1984.

Valuable for information on both the American and the German side of the episode with Venezuela.

Panama Canal

McCullough, David G. The Path between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977.

Miner, Dwight C. The Fight for the Panama Route: The Story of the Spooner Act and the Hay-Herran Treaty. New York: Columbia University Press, 1940.

An older study of this event that is more critical of Roosevelt.

Lael, Richard L. Arrogant Diplomacy: U.S. Policy toward Columbia, 1903-1922. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1987.

Bunau-Varilla, Philippe. Panama: The Creation, Destruction and Resurrection. New York: McBride, Nast, 1914.

Memoir of the French engineer who influenced the United States decision to build the Panama Canal and encouraged the revolution in Columbia controlled Panama that paved the way for the project.

Anguizola, Gustave A. Philippe Bunau-Varilla: The Man behind the Panama Canal. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1980.

Du Val, Miles P., Jr. And the Mountains Will Move: The Story of the Building of the Panama Canal. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1947.

Discusses the actual construction of the Panama Canal and the problems that resulted.

Foreign Relations with Asia

Esthus, Raymond A. Theodore Roosevelt and Japan. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.

Neu, Charles E. An Uncertain Friendship: Theodore Roosevelt and Japan, 1906-1909. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Extensive coverage on Roosevelt’s relations with Japan, considers both foreign and domestic issues.

Alfonso, Oscar M. Theodore Roosevelt and the Philippines, 1897-1909. New York: Oriole, 1974.

Russo-Japanese War

Trani, Eugene P. The Treaty of Portsmouth: An Adventure in American Diplomacy. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1969.

Focuses on Roosevelt’s role in the Treaty process.

Esthus, Raymond A. Double Eagle and Rising Sun: The Russians and Japanese at Portsmouth in 1905. Durham N.C., Duke University Press, 1988.

A more international perspective on the Russo-Japanese War.

Dennet, Tyler. Roosevelt and the Russo-Japanese War. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1925.

Primarily based on the private papers of Theodore Roosevelt.

White Fleet

Reckner, James R. Teddy Roosevelt’s Great White Fleet. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1988.

Jones, Robert D. With the American Fleet from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Seattle, WA: Harrison Publishing Co., 1908.

Includes complete lists of officers and men for each vessel of the fleet.

Alaska Boundary

Penlington, Norman. The Alaska Boundary Dispute: A Critical Reappraisal. Toronto, New York: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1972.

Munro, John A., ed. The Alaska Boundary Dispute. Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1970.

A collection of contemporary opinions on the subject.

Tansill, Charles Callan. Canadian-American Relations, 1875-1911. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1943.

Campbell, Charles S., Jr. Anglo-American Understanding, 1898-1903. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1957.

Tansill and Campbell address the Boundary dispute in the within a larger context.

Algeciras Conference over Morocco

Larsen, Peter. "Theodore Roosevelt and the Moroccan Crisis, 1904-1906." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1984.

Still the most thorough study of the subject.

Hall, Luella J. The United States and Morocco, 1776-1956. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1971.

Phillips, Dennis Heath. The American Presence in Morocco: 1880-1904. Ph.D. diss. University of Wisconsin, 1972.

Politics and Political Parties

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., ed. History of U.S. Political Parties. 5 vols. New York: Chelsea House, 2002.

Manners, William. TR and Will: A Friendship that Split the Republican Party. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969.

Discusses Roosevelt’s formation of the Bull Moose Party.

Gable, John A. The Bull Moose Years: Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Party. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1978.

Wilensky, Norman M. Conservatives in the Progressive Era; the Taft Republicans of 1912. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1965.

Mowry, George E. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement. New York: Hill and Wang, 1946.

Covers the Republican and Bull Moose Conventions of 1912, as well as Roosevelt’s impact on the Progressive Movement as a whole.

Merrill, Horace Samuel. The Republican Command, 1897-1913. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1971.

Sarasohn, David. The Party of Reform: Democrats in the Progressive Era. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1989.


Burdick, Francis Allen. Businessmen in Politics: The Case of the Election of 1912. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1972.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-1968. 4 vols. New York: Chelsea House, 1971.

Roosevelt Contemporaries

Nelson W. Aldrich (Party Chief in the Senate)

Stephenson, Nathaniel Wright. Nelson W. Aldrich: A Leader in American Politics. New York: Scribner’s, 1930.

Albert J. Beveridge (Senator, Strong Progressive)

Braeman, John. Albert J. Beveridge: American Nationalist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Bowers, Claude Gernade. Beveridge and the Progressive Era. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932.

William Jennings Bryan (Democratic presidential candidate in the election of 1900)

Cherny, Robert W. A Righteous Cause: The Life of William Jennings Bryan. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

Koenig, Louis W. Bryan: A Political Biography of William Jennings Bryan. New York: Putnam’s, 1971.

Philippe Bunau-Varilla (French engineer; involved with production of the Panama Canal)

For information on Bunau-Varilla see ’Panama Canal’ under "Major Issues of the Roosevelt Administration."

Archie Butt (White House military aide)

Butt, Archibald Willingham. Taft and Roosevelt: the Intimate Letters of Archie Butt. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1930.

Butt, Archibald Willingham. The Letters of Archie Butt. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1924.

Joseph Hodges Choate (Diplomat)

Choate, Joseph Hodges. The Life of Joseph Hodges Choate as Gathered Chiefly from His Letters. New York: Scribner’s, 1927.

Strong, Theron G. Joseph H. Choate: New Englander, New Yorker, Lawyer, Ambassador. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1917.

Joseph B. Foraker (Governor of Ohio; U.S. Senator)

Walters, Everett. Joseph B. Foraker: An Uncompromising Republican. Columbus: Ohio History Press, 1948.

William Dudley Foulke (Civil Service Commission)

Foulke, William Dudley. Fighting the Spoilsmen: Reminiscences of the Civil Service Reform Movement. New York: Putnam, 1919.

Includes valuable information on Roosevelt’s style of governing.

Marcus Alonzo Hanna (Senator, close ally of McKinley)

Croly, Herbert D. Marcus Alonzo Hanna: His Life and Work. New York: Macmillan, 1912.

Stern, Clarence Ames. Resurgent Republicanism: The Handiwork of Hanna. Ann Arbor, Mich.: publisher unknown, 1963.

Jean-Jules Jusserand (French Diplomat)

Jusserand, J.J. What Me Befell: The Reminiscences of J.J. Jusserand. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1934.

Henry Cabot Lodge (Senator of Massachusetts)

Roosevelt, Theodore. Selections from the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge, 1884-1918. New York: Da Capo Press, 1925.

Garraty, John A. Henry Cabot Lodge. New York: Knopf, 1953

Widenor, William C. Henry Cabot Lodge and the Search for an American Foreign Policy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

William McKinley (President of the United States)

Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of William McKinley. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1980.

From the American Presidency Series, a series dedicated to providing a consistent, scholarly treatment of each president. Coverage is limited to the years in office.

Fisher, Jack C. Stolen Glory: The McKinley Assassination. La Jolla, Calif.: Alamar Books, 2001.

Olcott, Charles S. Life of William McKinley. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1916.

First significant biography.

Leech, Margaret. In the Days of McKinley. New York: Harper and Bros. 1959.

Covers the presidency in great detail.

See online bibliography of William McKinley for more information.

John Pierpont Morgan (Banker, Financier)

Jackson, Stanley. J.P. Morgan: A Biography. New York: Stein & Day, 1983.

Carosso, Vincent P. The Morgans: Private International Bankers, 1854-1913. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Gifford Pinchot (Conservationist, Pennsylvania Governor)

Pinchot, Gifford. Breaking New Ground. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1947.

Miller, Char. Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism. Washington, D.C.: Island Press/Shearwater Books, 2001.

Pinkett, Harold T. Gifford Pinchot: Private and Public Forester. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970.

For more info on Gifford Pinchot please see "Conservationism" under "Major Issues in the Roosevelt Administration."

Orville Platt (Connecticut Senator, close friend of Roosevelt)

Coolidge, Louis Arthur. An Old-Fashioned Senator: Orville H. Platt. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1910.

Whitelaw Reid (Ambassador and close confidant to Roosevelt)

Cortissoz, Royal. The Life of Whitelaw Reid. New York: Scribner’s, 1921.

Sir Cecil Spring Rice (Diplomat)

Gwynn, Stephen. The Letters and Friendships of Sir Cecil Spring Rice: A Record. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1929.

Burton, David Henry. Cecil Spring Rice: A Diplomat’s Life. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990.

Booker T. Washington (Activist, Educator)

Harlan, Louis R. Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Verney, Kevern. The Art of the Possible: Booker T. Washington and Black Leadership in the United States, 1881-1925. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery. New York: Doubleday, Page and Co.,1901.

Henry White (Ambassador to Italy and France, Representative at Algeciras Conference)

Nevins, Allan. Henry White: Thirty Years of American Diplomacy. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1930.

Recent Publications

Hannigan, Robert E. The New World Power: American Foreign Policy, 1898-1917. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.

Zimmerman, Warren. First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a Great Power. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002.

Dalton, Kathleen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. 1st ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: Distributed by Random House, 2002.

Diaz Espino, Ovidio. How Wall Street Created a Nation: J.P. Morgan, Teddy Roosevelt, and the Panama Canal. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2001.

Wimmel, Kenneth. Theodore Roosevelt and the Great White Fleet: American Sea Power Comes of Age. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1998.


United States. President (1901-1909: Roosevelt). Theodore Roosevelt, 1858-1919: Chronology, Documents, Bibliographical Aids. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1969.

Ferleger, Herbert Ronald and Albert Bushnell Hart. Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Meckler Corporation and Theodore Roosevelt Association, 1988.

Updated with a relatively new bibliography and chronology by John Gable.

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