Miller Center

George Washington Bibliography (1732 - 1799)

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Historical Context

Wood, Gordon. Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787.Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1969.

A “classic” account of political thought from the Revolution and the Confederation periods.

Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

A substantial account of the first years of the United States.

Miller, John C. The Federalist Era, 1789-1801. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960.

Older and briefer then Elkins and McKitrick above.

Sharp, James Roger. American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1993.

White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Company, 1948.

First volume in White's trilogy on the administrative history of the Federalist, Jeffersonian, and Jacksonian periods.

Washington Papers and Memoirs

Abbot, W. W. et. al., eds. The Papers of George Washington. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1983-.

The authoritative collection of Washington Papers. Publication is ongoing. To date, 44 volumes have been published.

Jackson, Donald and Dorothy Twohig, eds. The Diaries of George Washington. 6 vols. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976-1979.

The authoritative edition of Washington's diaries.

Fitzpatrick, John, ed. The Writings of George Washington. 39 vols. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1931-1944.

The best available published source for Washington papers yet to be published by the Washington project at the University of Virginia.

For a fuller discussion of Washington primary sources, see Washington's Public and Private Papers.

Washington Biographies

Freeman, Douglas. George Washington: A Biography. 7 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1948-1957.

The standard Washington biography. A one-volume condensation, edited by Richard Harwell and titled Washington, was published in 1968.

Flexner, James. George Washington. 4 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1965-1972.

Flexner published a one-volume abridgement titled Washington: The Indispensable Man.

Cunliffe, Marcus. George Washington: Man and Monument. Boston: Little, Brown. 1958.

Considered one of the better single-volume biographies of Washington.

Marshall, John. The Life of George Washington. 5 vols. 1804-1807. Reprint, Fredericksburg, Va.: The Citizens' Guild of Washington's Boyhood Home, 1926.

A classic study by a contemporary of Washington and future Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

Burns, James MacGregor. George Washington. New York: Times Books, 2004.

From the American Presidents Series, a project dedicated to producing brief biographical treatments of each U.S. President. The volumes are typically less than 200 pages. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. serves as Series Editor.

McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1974.

From the American Presidency Series, a series dedicated to providing a consistent, scholarly treatment of each president. Coverage is limited to the years in office.

Washington Administration and Advisors (1789-1797)

For cabinet members not listed below, please see: Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet. 3 vols. Santa Barbara, Cali.: ABC-CLIO, 2000.

John Adams (Vice President)

Smith, Page. John Adams. 2 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1962.

The definitive Adams biography, with the caveat that Ferling below had greater access to the Adams Family Papers.

Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992.

A more recent, very readable one-volume study of Adams.

Taylor, Robert J., et. al., eds. Papers of John Adams. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977-.

The authoritative collection of Adams Papers. Publication is ongoing. To date, 11 volumes have been published.

Butterfield, L. H., et. al., eds. Diary and Autobiography of John Adams. 4 vols. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1961.

The authoritative edition of Adams's diary and autobiography.

Adams, Charles Francis, ed. The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States. 10 vols. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1850-1856.

As editor, Charles Francis Adams (John Adams's grandson) introduces inevitable bias to this collection; however, his edition remains the best published source for Adams papers still Harvard University Press above.

For a fuller discussion of Adams primary sources, see Adams's Public and Private Papers.

See Adams's online bibliography for more information on Adams and his Presidency.

John Quincy Adams (Minister to the Netherlands)

Bemis, Samuel Flagg. John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949.

A “classic” biography of Adams.

Parsons, Lynn Hudson. John Quincy Adams. Madison: Madison House, 1998.

Considered by many to be the best recent biography of Adams.

Adams, Charles Francis, ed. Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Comprising Portions of His Diary from 1795 to 1848. 12 vols. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1874-1877.

The best published version of Adams's Diary.

Ford, Worthington C., ed. Writings of John Quincy Adams. 7 vols. New York: Macmillan Company, 1913-1917.

A selective collection of Adams's papers; however, Ford remains the best published source for Adams papers.

For a fuller discussion of Adams primary sources, see Adams's Public and Private Papers.

See Adams's online bibliography for more information on Adams and his Presidency.

Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury)

Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.

The most recent and possibly the best Hamilton biography.

Mitchell, Broadus. Alexander Hamilton. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1957-1962.

Long considered the standard Hamilton biography.

McDonald, Forrest. Alexander Hamilton: A Biography. New York: Norton, 1979.

McDonald's work has received mixed reviews; however, it is consistently praised for its discussion of Hamilton's economic theories.

Knott, Stephen. Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002.

Traces the evolution of Hamilton's controversial image in the American mind, and argues for a reconsideration of his contribution to the nation's founding.

Syrett, Harold C., ed. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 27 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961-1987.

The authoritative collection of Hamilton Papers.

Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State)

Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Time. 6 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1948-1981.

The monumental biography of Jefferson.

Peterson, Merrill. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Considered by many to be the best one-volume treatment of Jefferson. Like Malone above, a favorable portrait of Jefferson.

Ellis, Joseph. American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Knopf, 1996.

A more modern look at Jefferson that addresses the controversies that have surrounded him in recent years.

Boyd, Julian, et. al., eds. Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-.

The authoritative collection of Jefferson Papers. Publication is ongoing. To date, 30 volumes have been published.

For a fuller discussion of Jefferson primary sources, see Jefferson's Public and Private Papers.

See Jefferson's online bibliography for more information on Jefferson and his Presidency.

Rufus King (Federalist; Senator; Minister to England)

King, Charles R., ed. The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King: Comprising His Letters, Private and Official, His Public Documents, and His Speeches. 6 vols. New York: G. P. Putman's Sons, 1894-1900.

Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.

Henry Knox (Secretary of War)

Callahan, North. Henry Knox: General Washington's General. South Brunswick, NY: A. S. Barnes, 1958.

James McHenry (Secretary of War)

Steiner, Bernard. The Life and Correspondence of James McHenry: Secretary of War under Washington and Adams. Cleveland: The Burrows Brothers Company, 1907.

James Monroe (Senator; Minister to France)

Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.

The standard Monroe biography.

Hamilton, Stanislaus Murray, ed. The Writings of James Monroe. 7 vols. New York: G. P. Putman's Sons, 1898-1903.

Currently, the best published source for Monroe papers.

Brown, Stuart G., and Donald G. Baker, eds. The Autobiography of James Monroe. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1959.

For a fuller discussion of Monroe primary sources, see Monroe's Public and Private Papers.

See Monroe's online bibliography for more information on Monroe and his Presidency.

Gouverneur Morris (Minister to France)

Adams, William Howard. Gouverneur Morris: An Independent Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Sparks, Jared. The Life of Gouverneur Morris, with Selections from his Correspondence. 3 vols. Boston: Gray & Bowen, 1832.

The classic “life” of Morris.

Davenport, Beatrix Cary, ed. A Diary of the French Revolution, by Gouverneur Morris, 1752-1816. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1939.

Description of Morris's time in France from the French Revolution through the first eight months of his tenure as Minister of France.

Thomas Pickering (Postmaster General; Secretary of War; Secretary of State)

Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and the American Republic. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1980.

A general biography of Pickering.

Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy, 1795-1800. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1969.

Deals specifically with Pickering's term as Secretary of State.

Pickering, Octavius, and Charles Wentworth Upham, eds. The Life of Timothy Pickering. 4 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1867-1873.

The most complete published source for Pickering correspondence. A more complete collection of Pickering papers is available in microfilm.

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Minister to France)

Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Founding Father. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Edmund Randolph (Attorney General; Secretary of State)

Reardon, John. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: Macmillan, 1975.

Brant, Irving. “Edmund Randolph, Not Guilty!” William and Mary Quarterly. 7 (April 1950): 179-98.

Considered by many to be the definitive defense of Randolph against charges that he solicited a French bribe.

Randolph, Edmund. A Vindication of Edmund Randolph, 1795. Richmond: C. H. Wynne, Printer, 1885.

Randolph's own defense. Originally published anonymously.

Martha Washington (First Lady)

Bryan, Helen. Martha Washington: First Lady of Liberty. New York: Wiley, 2002.

The best book-length biography of Martha Washington.

Fields, Joseph E., ed. Worthy Partner: The Papers of Martha Washington. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Gould, Lewis L., ed. American First Ladies: Their Lives and their Legacy. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Contains essays on each First Lady from Martha Washington through Laura Bush.

Oliver Wolcott (Secretary of the Treasury)

Gibbs, George ed. Memoirs of the Administrations of Washington and John Adams, Edited from the Papers of Oliver Wolcott, Secretary of the Treasury. 2 vols. New York: Privately Printed for the Subscribers, 1846.

Gibbs's editorial comments accompany the letters of Oliver Wolcott. Stridently Arch Federalist.

Major Issues in the Washington Administration

Foreign Relations (General)

Perkins, Bradford. The Creation of a Republican Empire, 1776-1865. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Volume 1 of The Cambridge History of Foreign Relations. A general survey of early U.S. foreign relations.

Knott, Stephen. Secret and Sanctioned: Covert Operations and the American Presidency. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Examines an underappreciated element of Washington's foreign and defense policies.

Great Britain

Stuart, Reginald C. United States Expansionism and British North America, 1775-1871. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Spends significant time on the period between 1783-1815.

Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.

The first in a trilogy on Anglo-American relations in the early Republic. Perkins begins with the signing of Jay Treaty.

Burt, Alfred L. The United States, Great Britain, and British North American from the Revolution to the Establishment of Peace after the War of 1812. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940.

“Classic” text on Anglo-American relations as they relate to British North America.

Jay Treaty

Bemis, Samuel Flagg. Jay's Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1962.

Remains the standard work on the Jay Treaty.

Combs, Jerald. The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the Founding Fathers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.

Combs's focus is on differences between the Federalist and Republican reaction to the Jay Treaty.

Fauchet, Joseph. “Memoire sur les Etats Unis d'Amerique par Joseph Fauchet.” The Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1936, ed. Carl L. Lokke, 1: 83-123. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1938.

Fauchet was French Minister to the United States and worked to defeat the Jay Treaty.

France, Neutrality, and the Genet Affair

Bowman, Albert. The Struggle for Neutrality: Franco-American Diplomacy during the Federalist Era. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1974.

A general overview of Franco-American relations in the early Republic.

Ammon, Harry. The Genet Mission. New York: Norton, 1973.

The standard history of the Genet Affair.

Turner, Frederick Jackson, ed. “Correspondence of the French Ministers to the United States, 1791-1797.” The Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1903. vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904.

Correspondence between both Genet and Fauchet (Genet's replacement) and Paris.

Turner, Frederick Jackson, ed. “Documents on the Relations of France to Louisiana, 1792-1795.” American Historical Review 3 (April 1898): 490-516.

Documents showing Genet's attempt to take Louisiana.

Turner, Frederick Jackson, ed. “The Mangourit Correspondence in Respect to Genet's Projected Attack upon the Floridas, 1793-94.” The Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1897, 569-679. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1898.

Documents showing Mangourit and Genet's attempt to seize the Floridas.

Minnigerode, Meade. Jefferson, Friend of France, 1793: The Career of Edmond Charles Genet, Minister Plenipotentiary from the French Republic to the United States, as Revealed by His Private Papers, 1763-1843. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1928.

A biography of Genet based on Genet's own papers. Rare in that it is one of the only published works to defend Genet's behavior.

Spanish Florida and Pinckney's Treaty

Bemis, Samuel Flagg. Pinckney's Treaty: America's Advantage from Europe's Distress, 1783-1800. Revised edition. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1960.

Remains the standard work on Pinckney's Treaty.

Whitaker, Arthur Preston. The Spanish American Frontier, 1783-1795: The Westward Movement and the Spanish Retreat in the Mississippi Valley. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1927.

Russia

Saul, Norman E. Distant Friends: The United States and Russia, 1763-1867. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992.

An overview of Russian-American relations in the early Republic.

Barbary Powers

Kitzen, Michael L. S. Tripoli and the United States at War: A History of American Relations with the Barbary States, 1785-1805. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland and Co., 1993.

Irwin, Ray W. The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Powers, 1776-1816. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1931.

A classic account of U. S. relations with the Barbary states; reprinted by Russell and Russell in 1970.

Barnby, H. G. The Prisoners of Algiers: An Account of the Forgotten American-Algerian War 1785-1797. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Banarby's focus is on the war with Algiers-the most powerful of the Barbary states.

U.S. Office of Naval Records and Library, ed. Naval Documents Related to the United States Wars with the Barbary Powers. 6 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1939-1944.

Caribbean

Langley, Lester D. Struggle for the American Mediterranean: United States-European Rivalry in the Gulf-Caribbean, 1776-1904. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976.

Logan, Rayford W. The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with Haiti, 1776-1891. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1941.

Still remains the standard book-length work on the Haitian Revolution.

Matthewson, Timothy M. “George Washington's Policy toward the Haitian Revolution.” Diplomatic History 3 (Summer 1979): 321-36.

A more recent look at the Haitian Revolution.

Military

Jacobs, James Ripley. The Beginning of the U.S. Army, 1783-1812. Princeton: Princeton University Press: 1947.

Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America, 1783-1802. New York: Free Press, 1975.

Economics (general), Funding and Assumption, National Bank

Nettels, Curtis. The Emergence of a National Economy, 1775-1815. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962.

A classic survey.

Wright, Robert E. Hamilton Unbound: Finance and the Creation of the American Republic. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Slavery

Hirschfeld, Fritz. George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.

Indian Affairs

Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

General survey of United States Indian policy from one of the leading scholars on the subject.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Policy in the Formative Years: The Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts, 1790-1834. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Examines the Trade and Intercourse Acts originally established by Washington and Henry Knox that ultimately were never enforced.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Treaties: The History of a Political Anomaly. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Dowd, Gregory Evans. A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745-1815. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Focuses on the attempt to develop pan-Indian unity, with an emphasis on the religious elements in the movement.

Sword, Wiley. President Washington's Indian War: The Struggle for the Old Northwest, 1790-1795. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

The only work to focus on the Indian war in the Old Northwest.

Frontier and the Whiskey Rebellion

Rohrbough, Malcolm J. The Trans-Appalachian Frontier: People, Societies, and Institutions, 1775-1850. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

An overview of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier.

Slaughter, Thomas P. The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Farewell Address

Kaufman, Burton I., ed. Washington's Farewell Address: The View from the 20th Century. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.

A collection of essays on the Farewell Address. Includes Samuel Flagg Bemis's “Washington's Farewell Address: A Foreign Policy of Independence”-considered by many to be the standard work on the subject.

Spalding, Matthew and Patrick J. Garrity. A Sacred Union of Citizens: George Washington's Farewell Address and the American Character. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996.

Paltsits, Victor H., ed. Washington's Farewell Address: In Facsimile, with Transliterations of All the Drafts of Washington, Madison, & Hamilton Together with Their Correspondence and Other Supporting Documents. New York: New York Public Library, 1935.

Judicial issues and Appointments

Monaghan, Frank. John Jay, Defender of Liberty against Kings & Peoples. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1935.

Though dated, Monaghan remains important as it is the only modern “life” of Jay.

Casto, William R. The Supreme Court in the Early Republic: The Chief Justiceships of John Jay and Oliver Ellsworth. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.

Morris, Richard B., ed. John Jay. New York: Harper Row, 1975-.

A new edition of Jay's papers. To date, two volumes have been published covering the years through 1784.

Johnston, Henry P., ed. The Correspondence and Public Papers of John Jay. 4 vols. New York: G. P. Putman's Sons, 1890-1893.

The best published source for Jay papers not yet covered by the Morris edition above.

Brown, William. The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. New York: Macmillan, 1905.

Barry, Richard Hayes. Mr. Rutledge or South Carolina. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1943.

Smith, Page. James Wilson, Founding Father, 1742-1798. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1956.

Wilson, James. The Works of James Wilson. 2 vols. Edited by Robert Green McCloskey. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.

A reproduction of Bird Wilson's (James Wilson's son) 1804 collection with a new interpretive essay on Wilson's life.

Wichard, Willis. Justice James Iredell. Durham, N. C.: Carolina Academic Press, 2000.

Higginbotham, Don, ed. The Papers of James Iredell. Raleigh, N. C.: Division of Archives and History, 1976-.

To date, two volumes covering Iredell's papers through 1783 have been published.

O'Connor, John E. William Paterson, Lawyer and Statesman, 1745-1806. New Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers University Press, 1979.

Haw, James, et. al. Stormy Patriot: The Life of Samuel Chase. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1980.

Hall, Timothy L. Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Facts on File, 2001.

Abraham, Henry J. Justices, Presidents, and Senators: A History of the U.S. Supreme Court Appointments from Washington to Clinton. Rev. ed. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.

Hall and Abraham cover all of Washington's appointments to the Supreme Court.

Political Parties

Ketcham, Ralph. Presidents Above Party: The First American Presidency, 1789-1829. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.

Examines how the first six presidents thought of the office of the President. Ketcham argues that all six shared a common goal of non-partisanship.

Chambers, William Nisbet. Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776-1809. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963.

A brief overview of the emergence of the two-party system.

Hofstadter, Richard. The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780-1840. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.

Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978.

Cunningham, Noble E. Jr. The Jeffersonian Republicans: The Formation of Party Organization, 1789-1801. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1957.

A “classic” work on the Jeffersonian Republicans.

Elections

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-1968. 4 vols. New York: Chelsea House, 1971.

Includes brief essays, statistics and relevant documents on each presidential election from 1789 to 1968.

Contemporaries

Fisher Ames (Federalist; Congressman)

Bernhard, Winfred E. A. Fisher Ames, Federalist and Statesman, 1758-1808. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.

Ames, Seth, ed. Works of Fisher Ames. 2 vols. 1854. Reprint, New York: Burt Franklin, 1971.

William Blount (Territorial Governor of Tennessee; Senator)

Masterson, William H. William Blount. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1954.

The only full-length biography of Blount.

Melton, Buckner F., Jr. The First Impeachment: The Constitution's Framers and the Case of Senator William Blount. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1998.

Blue Jacket (Shawnee leader)

Sugden, John. Blue Jacket: Warrior of the Shawnees. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.

Joseph Brant (Iroquois leader)

Kelsay, Isabel Thompson. Joseph Brant, 1743-1807, Man of Two Worlds. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1984.

Aaron Burr (Senator)

Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr. 2 vols. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979-1982.

Volume one covers Burr's life through 1805.

Kline, Mary-Jo, et. al., eds. Political Correspondence and Public Papers of Aaron Burr. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.

George Clinton (Governor of New York)

Kaminski, John P. George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. Madison: Madison House, 1993.

The best available biography of Clinton.

Public Papers of George Clinton, First Governor of New York, 1777-1795, 1801-1804. 1899-1914. Reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1973.

Benjamin Franklin (Statesman)

Van Doren, Carl. Benjamin Franklin. New York, The Viking Press, 1957.

The first edition of this “classic” Franklin biography was published in 1938.

Brands, H. W. The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Doubleday, 2000.

Labaree, Leonard W. et. al., eds. The Papers of Benjamin Franklin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959-.

The authoritative collection of Franklin papers. Publication is ongoing. To date, 37 volumes have been published.

Albert Gallatin (Republican; Congressman)

Walters, Ray. Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat. New York: Macmillan, 1957.

Adams, Henry, ed. The Writings of Albert Gallatin. 3 vols. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1879.

Remains the best published source for Gallatin's papers. A modern microfilm edition also exists.

Benjamin Hawkins (Indian Agent)

Pound, Merritt B. Benjamin Hawkins: Indian Agent. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1951.

Henri, Florette. The Southern Indians and Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1816. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

Grant, C. L., ed. Letters, Journals and Writings of Benjamin Hawkins. 2 vols. Savannah: Beehive Press, 1980.

James Madison (Congressman)

Brant, Irving. James Madison. 6 vols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1941-1961.

The monumental multi-volume biography of Madison.

Ketcham, Ralph L. James Madison: A Biography. New York: Macmillan, 1971.

Considered by many to be the best one-volume biography of Madison.

Hutchinson, William T., et. al., eds. The Papers of James Madison. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1962-.

The authoritative collection of Madison papers. Publication is ongoing. To date, 27 volumes have been published.

For a fuller discussion of Madison primary sources, see Madison's Public and Private Papers.

See Madison's online bibliography for more information on Madison and his Presidency.

George Mason (Statesman)

Miller, Helen Hill. George Mason, Gentleman Revolutionary. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.

Rutland, Robert A., ed. The Papers of George Mason, 1725-1792. 3 vols. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1970.

Red Jacket (Iroquois leader)

Densmore, Christopher. Red Jacket: Iroquois Diplomat and Orator. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1999.

Anthony Wayne

Nelson, Paul David. Anthony Wayne, Soldier of the Early Republic. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Knopf, Richard C., ed. Anthony Wayne, A Name in Arms: Soldier, Diplomat, Defender of Expansion Westward of a Nation: the Wayne-Knox-Pickering-McHenry Correspondence. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1959.

Correspondence between Wayne and Washington's three secretaries of war.

Recent Publications

Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Langston, Thomas, S. and Michael G. Sherman. George Washington. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.

Higginbotham, Don, ed. George Washington Reconsidered. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001.

Bibliographies

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