Alberto Gonzales (2005–2007)
Alberto R. Gonzales was born in 1955 in San Antonio, Texas. From 1973 to 1975, he served in the Air Force prior to attending the United States Air Force Academy from 1975 to 1977. Gonzales earned a B.A. from Rice University in 1979 and a J.D. from Harvard University Law School in 1982. He worked for the Vinson and Elkins law firm in Houston, Texas (1982–1994), ultimately as partner, before serving three years as general counsel to Texas governor George W. Bush. From 1997 to 1999, Gonzales was the secretary of state of Texas, becoming justice of the Supreme Court of Texas in 1999. He served in this position until 2001 when he became White House Counsel for President George W. Bush.
In November 2004, President Bush nominated Gonzales to succeed John Aschroft as Attorney General. The Senate confirmed Gonzales in February 2005. Harriet Miers was nominated to succeed Gonzales as Counsel to the President. Gonzales retired as attorney general in 2007 amid a storm of controversy over his tenure.